MTBMLE is education, formal or non - formal, in which the learner’s mother tongue and additional languages are used in the classroom. Learners begin their education in the language they understand best - their mother tongue - and develop a strong foundation in their mother language before adding additional languages. Research stresses the fact that children with a solid foundation in their mother tongue develop stronger literacy abilities in the school language. Their knowledge and skills transfer across languages. This bridge enables the learners to use both or all their languages for success in school and for lifelong learning. In terms of cognitive development, the school activities will engage learners to move well beyond the basic wh-questions to cover all higher order thinking skills in L1 which they can transfer to the other languages once enough Filipino or English has been acquired to use these skills in thinking and articulating thoughts.
Learning requires meaning. We learn when we use what we know to understand what is new. Start with what the students know; use that to introduce new concepts. They use language to examine new experiences and knowledge in relation to their prior knowledge, experiences, and beliefs. They make connections, anticipate possibilities, reflect upon ideas, and determine courses of action.
Learners learn about language and how to use it effectively through their engagement with and study of texts. The term ‘text’ refers to any form of written (reading and writing), oral (listening and speaking) and visual communication involving language4. The texts through which students learn about language are wide-ranging and varied, from brief conversations to lengthy and complex forms of writing. The study of specific texts is the means by which learners achieve the desired outcomes of language, rather than an end in itself. Learners learn to create texts of their own and to engage with texts produced by other people.
Layunin ng pagtuturo ng Filipino na malinang ang (1) kakayahang komunikatibo, (2) replektibo / mapanuring pag-iisip at, (3) pagpapahalagang pampanitikan ng mga mag-aaral sa pamamagitan ng mga babasahin at teknolohiya tungo sa pagkakaroon ng pambansang pagkakakilanlan, kultural na literasi, at patuloy na pagkatuto upang makaagapay sa mabilis na pagbabagong nagaganap sa daigdig.
Sa ikatatamo ng mithiing ito, kailangan ng mga kagamitang panturo ng mga guro bilang suporta sa kurikulum na magmumula sa administrasyon, ahensiyang panlipunan, pribado at publiko, pamahalaang lokal, midya, tahanan at iba pang sektor ng lipunan.
Mathematics is one subject that pervades life at any age and in any circumstance. Thus, its value goes beyond the classroom and the school. Mathematics as a school subject, therefore, must be learned comprehensively and with much depth.
The twin goals of mathematics in the basic education levels, K-10, are Critical Thinking and Problem Solving.
Critical thinking, according to Scriven and Paul (1987) is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skilfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.
On the other hand, according to Polya (1945 & 1962), mathematical problem solving is finding a way around a difficulty, around an obstacle, and finding a solution to a problem that is unknown.
The K to 12 science curriculum will provide learners with a repertoire of competencies important in the world of work and in a knowledge-based society. It envisions the development of scientifically, technologically, and environmentally literate and productive members of society who are critical problem solvers, responsible stewards of nature, innovative and creative citizens, informed decision makers, and effective communicators. This curriculum is designed around the three domains of learning science: understanding and applying scientific knowledge in local setting as well as global context whenever possible, performing scientific processes and skills, and developing and demonstrating scientific attitudes and values. The acquisition of these domains is facilitated using the following approaches: multi/interdisciplinary approach, science-technology society approach, contextual learning, problem/issue-based learning, and inquiry-based approach. The approaches are based on sound educational pedagogy namely, constructivism, social cognition learning model, learning style theory, and brain-based learning
Naging batayan ng K-12 Araling Panlipunan Kurikulum ang mithiin ng “Edukasyon para sa Lahat 2015” (Education for All 2015) at ang K-12 Philippine Basic Education Curriculum Framework. Layon ng mga ito na magkaroon ng mga kakayahang kinakailangang sa siglo 21 upang makalinang ng “functionally literate and developed Filipino.” Kaya naman, tiniyak na ang mga binuong nilalaman, pamantayang pangnilalalaman at pamantayan sa pagganap sa bawat baitang ay makapag-aambag sa pagtatamo ng nasabing mithiin. Sa pag-abot ng nasabing mithiin, tunguhin (goal) ng K-12 Kurikulum ng Araling Panlipunan ang makahubog ng mamamayang mapanuri, mapagmuni, mapanagutan, produktibo, makakalikasan, makabansa at makatao na may pambansa at pandaigdigang pananaw at pagpapahalaga sa mga usaping pangkasaysayan at panlipunan.
EDUKASYONG PANTAHANAN AT PANGKABUHAYAN
TLE is geared toward the development of technological proficiency and is anchored on knowledge and information, entrepreneurial concepts, process and delivery, work values, and lifeskills. This means that the TLE that works is one which is built on adequate mastery of knowledge and information, skills and processes, and the acquisition of right work values and life skills. The TLE that is functional is one whichequips students with skills for lifelong learning. TLE that is concerned only with mere definition of terms is meaningless and shallow. TLE that is focused on mastery of skills and processes without right work values is anemic and dangerous. An effective TLE is one that is founded on the cognitive, behavioral, or psychomotor and affective dimensions of human development. Therefore teaching TLE means teaching facts, concepts, skills, and values in their entirety.
EDUKASYON SA PAGPAPAKATAO
Ang Edukasyon sa Pagpapakatao (EsP) ay isa sa mga asignatura ng Pinaunlad na Programa ng Batayang Edukasyon na K to 12 na gagabay at huhubog sa mga kabataan. Tunguhin nito ang paghubog ng kabataang nagpapasya at kumikilos nang mapanagutan tungo sa kabutihang panlahat. Nangangahulugan ito na lilinangin at pauunlarin ang pagkataong etikal ng bawat mag-aaral. Upang maipamalas ito, kailangang magtaglay siya ng limang pangunahing kakayahan ( macro skills ): pag-unawa, pagninilay, pagsangguni, pagpapasya at pagkilos.
Nililinang sa apat na tema sa bawat antas mula Kindergarten hanggang Baitang 10 ang mga pangunahing kakayahang ito: (a) Pananagutang Pansarili at Mabuting Kasapi ng Pamilya, (b) Pakikipagkapwa-tao, (c) Paggawa Tungo sa Pambansang Pag-unlad at Pakikibahagi sa Pandaigdigang Pagkakaisa, at (d) Pananalig at Pagmamahal sa Diyos at Paninindigan sa Kabutihan.
Music is both an aural and a temporal art. All its elements, when interwoven in the highest artistic order, are likened into a -- tapestry moving in time. The global weavings of this tapestry in historical and cultural contexts are diverse -- having spurred a continued metamorphosis to include a full range of purposes, functions, and identities, from the utilitarian to aesthetic.
However, the basic nature of music does not change. In his book A Structure for Music Education, Ronald Thomas articulates that the nature of music is expressive, ongoing, and creative. Through a language and medium of its own, music conveys ideas and feelings in a way that addresses the human spirit, and has great value in its communicative process. Music, being responsive in interpreting contemporary times, is a continuing art. Aaron Copland describes this characteristic as a continuous state of becoming. Like the other arts, music is a creative avenue for man’s individual quest for self- expression and fulfillment.
The Arts is a visualization of a people’s history and uniqueness, a reflection of their creativity and accomplishments, and a visible expression of their distinct way of thinking, communicating, reasoning, and worshiping. It is expressed in a unique symbol system that is visual, kinetic and tactile. Howard Gardner, an educator and psychologist, affirms that the arts develop the child’s “SPATIAL, INTRAPERSONAL, LINGUISTIC AND KINESTHETIC INTELLIGENCES” for the Arts develop a distinct way of seeing, thinking, communicating, and creating in a person. Furthermore, Art develops and increases a person’s ability to apply creative and new solutions, for new problems in our world. Schools, therefore, need to develop the multiple intelligences of a student through the arts. The K12 Arts Curriculum seeks to address these needs of our students for the 21st Century.
Physical literacy is consists of movement, motor- and activity-specific skills. In the early grades the learners are taught the ‘what,’ ‘why’ and ‘how’ of the movement. This progresses to an understanding of the ‘why’ of the movement which is achieved by developing more mature movement patterns and motor skills in a wide range and variety of exercise, sports and dance activities to specifically enhance fitness parameters. The learners builds on these knowledge and skills in order to plan, set goals and monitor their participation in physical activities (exercise, sports and dance) and constantly evaluate how well they have integrated this their personal lifestyle. This implies the provision of ongoing and developmentally-appropriate activities so that the learners can practice, create, apply and evaluate the knowledge, understanding and skills necessary to maintain and enhance their own as well as others’ fitness and health through participation in physical activities.
Health Education from Kindergarten to Grade 10 focuses on the physical, mental, emotional, as well as the social, moral and spiritual dimensions of holistic health. It enables the learners to acquire essential knowledge, attitudes, and skills that are necessary to promote good nutrition; to prevent and control diseases; to prevent substance misuse and abuse; to reduce health-related risk behaviors; to prevent and control injuries with the end-view of maintaining and improving personal, family, community, as well as global health.
Health Education emphasizes the development of positive heath attitudes and relevant skills in order to achieve a good quality of living. Thus, the focus on skills development is explicitly demonstrated in the primary grade levels. Meanwhile, a comprehensive body of knowledge is provided in the upper year levels to serve as a foundation in developing desirable health attitudes, habits and practices.
Republic Act 10157, or "The Kindergarten Education Act" made Kindergarten the compulsory and mandatory entry stage to basic education. Section 2 of this Act provides that all five (5)-year old children shall be given equal opportunities for Kindergarten Education to effectively promote their physical, social, emotional, and intellectual development, including values formation, so they will be ready for school. The Department of Education (DepEd) believes that Kindergarten is the transition period from informal to formal literacy (Grades 1–12), considering that age five (5) is within the critical years in which positive experiences must be nurtured to ascertain school readiness. Extensive research has shown that this is the period of greatest growth and development, during which the brain continuously develops most rapidly and almost at its fullest. It is also the stage when self-esteem, vision of the world, moral foundations are established, and their mind’s absorptive capacity for learning is at its sharpest.